Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Many of those infected have no symptoms. Men may have burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in […]

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is tendinosis of the medial epicondyle on the inside of the elbow. It is in some ways similar to tennis elbow, which affects the outside at the lateral epicondyle. The anterior forearm contains several muscles that are involved with flexing the digits of the hand, and flexing and pronating the […]

Goiter

Goiter

A goitre, or goiter, is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. A goitre can be associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly. Worldwide, over 90% of goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency. The term is from the Latin gutturia, meaning throat. Most goitres are of a benign […]

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys). Many of the diseases are characterised by inflammation either of the glomeruli or of the small blood vessels in the kidneys, hence the name, but not all diseases necessarily have an inflammatory component. As it is not strictly a […]

Glioma

Glioma

A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine. Gliomas comprise about 30 percent of all brain tumors and central nervous system tumors, and 80 percent of all malignant brain tumors. Classification Gliomas are classified by cell type, by grade, and by location. By type […]

Glaucoma

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Peripheral vision may begin to decrease followed by central […]

Gingivitis

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis. Most forms of gingivitis are plaque-induced. While some cases of gingivitis […]

Gilbert’s Syndrome

Gilbert’s Syndrome

Gilbert’s syndrome (GS) is a mild liver disorder in which the liver does not properly process bilirubin. Many people never have symptoms. Occasionally a slight yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes may occur. Other possible symptoms include feeling tired, weakness, and abdominal pain. Gilbert’s syndrome is due to a mutation in […]

Gigantism

Gigantism

Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας, gígas, “giant”, plural γίγαντες, gígantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood resulting in people 7 to 9 ft (2.1 to 2.7 m) in height. It is a rare […]

Giardiasis

Giardiasis

Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia. About 10% of those infected have no symptoms. When symptoms occur they may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Vomiting, blood in the stool, and fever are less common. Symptoms usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and without […]

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels. Symptoms may include headache, pain over the temples, flu-like symptoms, double vision, and difficulty opening the mouth. Complication can include blockage of the artery to the eye with resulting blindness, aortic dissection, and aortic aneurysm. GCA is frequently associated with polymyalgia […]

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms; however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section. Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too […]

Germ Cell Tumor

Germ Cell Tumor

A germ-cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. Germ cells normally occur inside the gonads (ovary and testis). GCTs that originate outside the gonads may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo. Cause Some investigators suggest that this distribution arises as […]

Gerascophobia (Fear Of Getting Old)

Gerascophobia (Fear Of Getting Old)

Gerascophobia is an abnormal or incessant fear of growing older or ageing. Gerascophobia is a clinical phobia generally classified under specific phobias, fears of a single specific panic trigger. Gerascophobia may be based on anxieties of being left alone, without resources and incapable of caring for oneself. Sufferers may be young and healthy. Due to […]

Gephyrophobia (Fear Of Bridges)

Gephyrophobia (Fear Of Bridges)

Gephyrophobia (pronounced} is the anxiety disorder or specific phobia characterized by the fear of bridges. As a result, sufferers of gephyrophobia may avoid routes that will take them over bridges. Some possible explanations of gephyrophobia may be the fear of driving off the bridge, the fear of a gust of wind blowing one off the […]

Geographic Tongue

Geographic Tongue

Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. It is a common condition, affecting approximately 2–3% of the general population. It is characterized by areas of smooth, red depapillation (loss of lingual papillae) which migrate over time. The name […]

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about events or activities. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, and sufferers are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, death, family problems, friendship problems, interpersonal relationship problems, or work difficulties. Individuals may exhibit […]

Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (GD) is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth. In this case, the assigned sex and gender do not match the person’s gender identity, and the person is transgender. Evidence from studies of twins suggest that people who identify with a gender […]

Gaucher’s Disease

Gaucher’s Disease

Gaucher’s disease or Gaucher disease (/ɡoʊˈʃeɪ/) (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside (a sphingolipid, also known as glucosylceramide) accumulates in cells and certain organs. The disorder is characterized by bruising, fatigue, anemia, low blood platelet count and enlargement of the liver and spleen, and is caused by a hereditary deficiency of the enzyme […]

Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time. Normally, the stomach contracts to move food down into the small intestine for additional digestion. The vagus nerve controls these contractions. Gastroparesis may […]

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs)

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs)

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs arise in the smooth muscle pacemaker interstitial cell of Cajal, or similar cells. They are defined as tumors whose behavior is driven by mutations in the KIT gene (85%), PDGFRA gene (10%), or BRAF kinase (rare).[1] 95% of GISTs stain […]

Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum. When there is significant blood loss over a short time, symptoms may include vomiting red blood, vomiting black blood, bloody stool, or black stool. Small amounts of bleeding over a long […]

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long term condition in which stomach contents rise up into the esophagus, resulting in either symptoms or complications. Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. […]

Gastritis

Gastritis

Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration. There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain. Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn. Complications may […]

Ganser Syndrome

Ganser Syndrome

Ganser syndrome is a rare dissociative disorder characterized by nonsensical or wrong answers to questions and other dissociative symptoms such as fugue, amnesia or conversion disorder, often with visual pseudohallucinations and a decreased state of consciousness. The syndrome has also been called nonsense syndrome, balderdash syndrome, syndrome of approximate answers, hysterical pseudodementia or prison psychosis. […]

Gangrene

Gangrene

Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply. Symptoms may include a change in skin color to red or black, numbness, swelling, pain, skin breakdown, and coolness. The feet and hands are most commonly affected. Certain types may present with a fever or sepsis. Risk factors include diabetes, peripheral […]

Ganglion Cyst

Ganglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a fluid filled lump associated with a joint or tendon sheath. They most often occur at the back of the wrist followed by the front of the wrist. Onset is often over months. Typically there are no further symptoms. Occasionally pain or numbness may occur. Complications may include carpal tunnel syndrome. […]

Gamophobia (Fear Of Commitment)

Gamophobia (Fear Of Commitment)

In self-help literature, fear of commitment is the avoidance of long-term partnership or marriage. The concept is often much more pervasive, affecting school, work, and home life as well. The term “commitmentphobia” was coined in the popular self-help book Men Who Can’t Love in 1987. Following criticism of the perceived sexist idea that only men […]

Gallstone

Gallstone

A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a cramp-like pain in the right upper part of […]

Gallbladder Disease

Gallbladder Disease

Gallbladder diseases are diseases involving the gallbladder. Gallstones may develop in the gallbladder as well as elsewhere in the biliary tract. If gallstones in the gallbladder are symptomatic, surgical removal of the gallbladder, known as cholecystectomy may be indicated. Gallstones form when the tenuous balance of solubility of biliary lipids tips in favor of precipitation […]

Galactorrhea

Galactorrhea

Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing. Galactorrhea is reported to occur in 5–32% of women. Much of the difference in reported incidence can be attributed to different definitions of galactorrhea. Although frequently benign, it may […]

Galactocele

Galactocele

A galactocele (also: lacteal cyst or milk cyst) is a retention cyst containing milk or a milky substance that is usually located in the mammary glands. They occur in women during or shortly after lactation. They present as a firm mass, often subareolar, and are caused by the obstruction of a lactiferous duct. Clinically, they […]

Fugue State

Fugue State

Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorder and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality. The state can last days, months or longer. Dissociative fugue usually involves unplanned travel or wandering, and is sometimes accompanied by […]

Fuchs’ Dystrophy (corneal disease)

Fuchs’ Dystrophy (corneal disease)

Fuchs’ dystrophy, also referred to as Fuchs’ corneal endothelial dystrophy (FCED) and Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED), is a slowly progressing corneal dystrophy that usually affects both eyes and is slightly more common in women than in men. Although early signs of Fuchs’ dystrophy are sometimes seen in people in their 30s and 40s, the disease […]

Frostbite

Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues. The initial symptom is typically numbness. This may be followed by clumsiness with a white or bluish color to the skin. Swelling or blistering may occur following treatment. The hands, feet, and face are most commonly affected. Complications may include […]

Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal Dementia

The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes. They are: behavioral variant of FTD, semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, nonfluent agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, and FTD associated with motor neuron disease. One variant is the clinical presentation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which […]

frontal lobe seizures

frontal lobe seizures

Frontal lobe epilepsy, or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping. It is the second most common type of epilepsy after temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is related to the temporal form by the fact […]

Fregoli Delusion

Fregoli Delusion

The Fregoli delusion is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise. The syndrome may be related to a brain lesion and is often of a paranoid nature, with the delusional person believing themselves persecuted by […]

Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder. Symptoms often include mild to moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ in males is under 55. Physical features may include a long and narrow face, large ears, flexible fingers, and large testicles. About a third of those affected have features of autism such as problems with social […]

Fracture

Fracture

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid. If a displacement develops perpendicular to the surface of displacement, it is called a normal tensile […]

Foot Drop

Foot Drop

Foot drop is a gait abnormality in which the dropping of the forefoot happens due to weakness, irritation or damage to the common fibular nerve including the sciatic nerve, or paralysis of the muscles in the anterior portion of the lower leg. It is usually a symptom of a greater problem, not a disease in […]

Food Poisoning

Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is when someone gets sick from eating food or drink that has gone bad or is contaminated. There are two kinds of food poisoning: poisoning by toxic agent or by infectious agent. Food infection is when the food contains bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after it is eaten. Food intoxication […]

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. The symptoms of the allergic reaction may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it […]

Folliculitis

Folliculitis

Folliculitis is the infection and inflammation of one or more hair follicles. The condition may occur anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The rash may appear as pimples that come to white tips on the face, chest, back, arms, legs, buttocks, or head. Signs and symptoms […]

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults. It is also known as “focal glomerular sclerosis” or “focal nodular glomerulosclerosis.” It accounts for about a sixth of the cases of nephrotic syndrome. (Minimal change disease (MCD) is by […]

Flatfeet

Flatfeet

Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. An estimated 20–30% of the general population have an arch that simply never develops in one or both […]

Fish Odor Syndrome (Trimethylaminuria)

Fish Odor Syndrome (Trimethylaminuria)

Trimethylaminuria (TMAU; primary trimethylaminuria), also known as fish odor syndrome or fish malodor syndrome, is a rare metabolic disorder that causes a defect in the normal production of an enzyme named flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). When FMO3 is not working correctly or if not enough enzyme is produced, the body loses the ability to properly […]

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