Fabry’s Disease

Fabry’s Disease

  Fabry disease, also known as Anderson–Fabry disease, is a rare genetic disease that can affect many parts of the body including the kidneys, heart, and skin. Fabry disease is one of a group of conditions known as lysosomal storage diseases. The genetic mutation that causes Fabry disease interferes with the function of an enzyme […]

Eyestrain

Eyestrain

  Eye strain, also known as asthenopia (from Greek asthen-opia, ἀσθεν-ωπία, “weak-eye-condition”), is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision. Symptoms often occur after reading, computer work, or other close activities that involve tedious visual tasks. When concentrating […]

Eye Floaters

Eye Floaters

  Floaters are deposits of various size, shape, consistency, refractive index, and motility within the eye’s vitreous humour, which is normally transparent. At a young age, the vitreous is transparent, but as one ages, imperfections gradually develop. The common type of floater, which is present in most persons’ eyes, is due to degenerative changes of […]

External Compression Headaches

External Compression Headaches

  External Compression Headache is caused by any type of headwear. This includes headwear that places pressure on the head — including tight hats, helmets, headbands, headphones and goggles. It is not known why some people are more sensitive than others to this type of pressure. External compression headaches can affect anyone who uses headwear. […]

Exhibitionism

Exhibitionism

  Exhibitionism is the act of exposing in a public or semi-public context those parts of one’s body that are not normally exposed – for example, the breasts, genitals or buttocks. The practice may arise from a desire or compulsion to expose themselves in such a manner to groups of friends or acquaintances, or to […]

Exercise-Induced Asthma

Exercise-Induced Asthma

  Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., occurs when the airways narrow as a result of exercise. The preferred term for this condition is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB); exercise does not cause asthma, but is frequently an asthma trigger. Signs and symptoms It might be expected that people with E.I.B. would present with shortness of breath, and/or an […]

Ewing’s Sarcoma

Ewing’s Sarcoma

  Ewing’s sarcoma or Ewing sarcoma (/ˈjuːɪŋ/) is a malignant small, round, blue cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs, the mandible and clavicle (collar […]

Esthesioneuroblastoma

Esthesioneuroblastoma

  Esthesioneuroblastoma, also called “olfactory neuroblastoma”, is a rare cancer of the nasal cavity. Arising from the upper nasal tract, esthesioneuroblastoma is believed to originate from sensory neuroepithelial cells, also known as neuroectodermal olfactory cells. Fewer than 700 cases have been documented in the United States. Due to the location of the tumor and its […]

Essential Tremor

Essential Tremor

  Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder. The cause of the condition is currently unknown. It typically involves a tremor of the arms, hands or fingers but sometimes involves the head, vocal cords or […]

Essential Thrombocythemia (ET)

Essential Thrombocythemia (ET)

  Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare chronic blood condition characterised by the overproduction of platelets (thrombocytes) by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. It may, albeit rarely, develop into acute myeloid leukemia or myelofibrosis. It is one of four myeloproliferative neoplasms (blood disorders that occur when the body makes too many white or red blood […]

Esophagitis

Esophagitis

  Mechanism The esophagus is a muscular tube made of both voluntary and involuntary muscles. It is responsible for peristalsis of food. It is about 8 inches long and passes through the diaphragm before entering the stomach. The esophagus is made up of four different layers: serosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, and the mucosa. The mucosa, […]

Esophageal Varices

Esophageal Varices

Esophageal spasm or oesophageal spasm is a disorder of esophageal motility. The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristalsis contractions, from the upper esophageal sphincter to the stomach through waves of coordinated muscle contraction, or peristalsis. There are two types of esophageal spasm: […]

Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer

  Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach. Symptoms often include difficulty in swallowing and weight loss. Other symptoms may include pain when swallowing, a hoarse voice, enlarged lymph nodes (“glands”) around the collarbone, a dry cough, and possibly coughing up or vomiting blood. […]

Erotomania (Clerambault’s Syndrome)

Erotomania (Clerambault’s Syndrome)

  Erotomania is listed in the DSM 5 as a subtype of a delusional disorder. It is a relatively uncommon paranoid condition that is characterized by an individual’s delusions of another person being infatuated with him or her. This disorder is most often seen (though not exclusively) in female patients that are shy, dependent, and […]

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction

  Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity. Erectile dysfunction can have psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and self-image. The most important organic causes of impotence are cardiovascular […]

Epilepsy

Epilepsy

  Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can result in physical injuries, including occasionally broken bones. In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and, as a rule, have no immediate […]

Epiglottitis

Epiglottitis

  Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis—the flap at the base of the tongue that keeps food from going into the trachea (windpipe). Symptoms are usually rapid in onset and include trouble swallowing which can result in drooling, changes to the voice, fever, and an increased breathing rate. As the epiglottis is in the upper […]

Epidermolysis Bullosa

Epidermolysis Bullosa

  Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of genetic conditions that result in easy blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. Blisters occur with minor trauma or friction and are painful. Its severity can range from mild to fatal. Those with mild cases may not develop symptoms until they start to crawl or walk. Complications […]

Epidermoid (Sebaceous) Cysts

Epidermoid (Sebaceous) Cysts

  An epidermoid cyst or epidermal inclusion cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. The cyst develops out of ectodermal tissue. Histologically, it is made of a thin layer of squamous epithelium. Signs and symptoms The epidermoid cyst may have no symptoms, or it may be painful when touched. It can release […]

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

  Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE, also spelled eosinophilic oesophagitis), also known as allergic oesophagitis, is an allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. Symptoms are swallowing difficulty, food impaction, vomiting, and heartburn. Eosinophilic esophagitis was first described in children but also occurs in adults. The condition is not […]

Entropion

Entropion

  Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower lid) folds inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the eyelashes continuously rub against the cornea causing irritation. Entropion is usually caused by genetic factors. This is different from when an extra fold of skin on the lower eyelid causes lashes to turn […]

Entomophobia (Fear Of Bugs And Insects)

Entomophobia (Fear Of Bugs And Insects)

  Entomophobia (also known as insectophobia) is a specific phobia characterized by an excessive or unrealistic fear of one or more classes of insect, and classified as a phobia by the DSM-5. More specific cases included apiphobia (fear of bees), myrmecophobia (fear of ants), and lepidopterophobia (fear of moths and butterflies). One book claims 6% […]

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly

  Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. Splenomegaly is one of the four cardinal signs of hypersplenism which include: some reduction in number of circulating blood cells affecting granulocytes, erythrocytes or platelets in any combination; a compensatory proliferative response in […]

Hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly

  Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. It is a non-specific medical sign having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, hepatic tumours, or metabolic disorder. Often, hepatomegaly will present as an abdominal mass. Depending on the cause, it may sometimes present along with jaundice. Symptoms/signs Symptoms having to […]

Endometriosis

Endometriosis

  Endometriosis is a condition in which cells similar to those in the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grow outside of it. Most often this is on the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in […]

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial Cancer

  Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb). It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual […]

Endocarditis

Endocarditis

  Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of […]

Encopresis

Encopresis

  Encopresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐγκόπρησις / egkóprēsis), also known as paradoxical diarrhea, is voluntary or involuntary passage of feces outside of toilet trained contexts (fecal soiling) in children who are four years or older and after an organic cause has been excluded. Children with encopresis often leak stool into their undergarments. This term […]

Encephalitis

Encephalitis

  Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Severity is variable. Symptoms may include headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting. Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing. Causes Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Other […]

Egg Allergy

Egg Allergy

  Egg allergy is an immune hypersensitivity to proteins found in chicken eggs, and possibly goose, duck, or turkey eggs. Symptoms can be either rapid or gradual in onset. The latter can take hours to days to appear. The former may include anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition which requires treatment with epinephrine. Other presentations may […]

Edward’s Syndrome

Edward’s Syndrome

  Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by a third copy of all or part of chromosome 18. Many parts of the body are affected. Babies are often born small and have heart defects. Other features include a small head, small jaw, clenched fists with overlapping fingers, and severe […]

Edema

Edema

  Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis and the increased secretion of […]

Ectropion

Ectropion

  Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns exhibiting congenital Harlequin-type ichthyosis, but ectropion can occur due to any weakening of tissue of the lower eyelid. The condition can be repaired surgically. Ectropion is also found in dogs as a genetic […]

Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic Pregnancy

  Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus. Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Fewer than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms. The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy. Pain may also spread to the shoulder […]

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