Beta Thalassemia

Beta Thalassemia

  Beta thalassemias (β thalassemias) are a group of inherited blood disorders. They are forms of thalassemia caused by reduced or absent synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin that result in variable outcomes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. Global annual incidence is estimated at one in 100,000. Beta thalassemias are caused […]

Benzodiazepine Abuse

Benzodiazepine Abuse

  Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse, is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects. Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken […]

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

  Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate. Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder control. Complications can include urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and chronic kidney problems. The cause is unclear. Risk factors […]

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

  Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder arising from a problem in the inner ear. Symptoms are repeated, brief periods of vertigo with movement, that is, of a spinning sensation upon changes in the position of the head. This can occur with turning in bed or changing position. Each episode of vertigo typically […]

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s Palsy

  Bell’s palsy is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe. They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face. Other symptoms include […]

Behcet’s Disease

Behcet’s Disease

  Behçet’s disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body. The most common symptoms include painful mouth sores, genital sores, inflammation of parts of the eye, and arthritis. The sores typically last a few days. Less commonly there may be inflammation of the brain or spinal cord, blood […]

Bee Stings

Bee Stings

  A bee sting is a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc.). The stings of most of these species can be quite painful, and are therefore keenly avoided by many people. Bee stings differ from insect bites, and the venom or toxin of stinging insects is quite different. Therefore, the body’s […]

Bedwetting

Bedwetting

  Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs. Bedwetting in children and adults can result in emotional stress. Complications can include urinary tract infections. Most bedwetting is a developmental delay—not an emotional problem or physical illness. Only a small percentage (5% to 10%) […]

Bedsores (Pressure Sores)

Bedsores (Pressure Sores)

Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. The most common sites are the skin overlying the sacrum, coccyx, heels or […]

Bed Bug

Bed Bug

  Bed bugs are parasitic insects in the genus Cimex that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood; other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (Western United States), and Cimex […]

Bartholin’s Cyst

Bartholin’s Cyst

  A Bartholin’s cyst occurs when a Bartholin’s gland is blocked and the gland becomes inflamed. Sizes range from that of a pea to that of an egg and form just within each side of the lower part of the opening of the vagina. An abscess may form if the cyst becomes infected. In this […]

Baker’s Cyst

Baker’s Cyst

  A Baker’s cyst, also known as a popliteal cyst, is a benign swelling of the semimembranosus or more rarely some other synovial bursa found behind the knee joint. It is named after the surgeon who first described it, William Morrant Baker (1838–1896). It is not a “true” cyst, as an open communication with the […]

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma

  Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer. It often appears as a painless raised area of skin, that may be shiny with small blood vessels running over it or it may present as a raised area with ulceration. Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage […]

Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia

Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia

  Atypical ductal hyperplasia, abbreviated ADH, is the term used for a benign lesion of the breast that indicates an increased risk of breast cancer. The name of the entity is descriptive of the lesion; ADH is characterized by cellular proliferation (hyperplasia) within one or two breast ducts and (histomorphologic) architectural abnormalities, i.e. the cells […]

Avoidant-Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

Avoidant-Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

  Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), previously known as selective eating disorder (SED), is a type of eating disorder, as well as feeding disorder, where the consumption of certain foods is limited based on the food’s appearance, smell, taste, texture, brand, presentation, or a past negative experience with the food. Definition The fifth edition of […]

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder

  Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder. Those affected display a pattern of severe social anxiety, social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and inferiority, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, and avoidance of social interaction despite a strong desire for intimacy. The behavior is usually noticed by early adulthood and occurs in most […]

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular Necrosis

  Avascular necrosis (AVN), also called osteonecrosis or bone infarction, is death of bone tissue due to interruption of the blood supply. Early on there may be no symptoms. Gradually joint pain may develop which may limit the ability to move. Complication may include collapse of the bone or nearby joint surface. Risk factors include […]

Autophagia

Autophagia

  Autophagia (eating one’s own body) is not classified as a mental disorder or a symptom of a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the diagnostic manual used in the United States. However, Autophagia could be classified under the DSM’s Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified. Impulse-Control Disorders involve failing […]

Autonomic Neuropathy

Autonomic Neuropathy

  Autonomic neuropathy (also AN or AAN) is a form of polyneuropathy that affects the non-voluntary, non-sensory nervous system (i.e., the autonomic nervous system), affecting mostly the internal organs such as the bladder muscles, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, and the genital organs. These nerves are not under a person’s conscious control and function […]

Atypical Depression

Atypical Depression

  Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events. In contrast, people with melancholic depression generally do not experience […]

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune Hepatitis

  Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body’s immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals […]

Autism

Autism

  Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two or three years of their child’s life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then […]

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder

  Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder present with two types of symptoms: problems in social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. Symptoms are typically recognized between one and two […]

Atrioventricular Canal

Atrioventricular Canal

  The proper development of the atrioventricular canal into its prospective components (The heart septum and associated valves) to create a clear division between the four compartments of the heart and ensure proper blood movement through the heart, are essential for proper heart function. When this process does not happen correctly, a child will develop […]

Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial Septal Defect

  Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. Some flow is a normal condition both pre-birth and immediately post-birth via the foramen ovale, however when this does not naturally close after birth it is referred to as a patent (open) foramen ovale […]

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation

  Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria. Often it starts as brief periods of abnormal beating which become longer and possibly constant over time. Often episodes have no symptoms. Occasionally there may be heart palpitations, fainting, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, or chest […]

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis

  Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis). It results in itchy, red, swollen, and cracked skin. Clear fluid may come from the affected areas, which often thicken over time. The condition typically starts in childhood with changing severity over the years. In children under […]

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s Foot

  Athlete’s foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. Signs and symptoms often include itching, scaling, and redness. In rare cases the skin may blister. Athlete’s foot fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes. The next most […]

Atelophobia

Atelophobia

The fear of imperfection or not being good enough. Atelophobia (from Greek atelès, “imperfect” or “incomplete”) is the fear of not good enough or imperfection. Atelophobes would often feel that everything they do is wrong. As a result, they would never do anything while not interacting with anyone, let alone not playing games nor doing […]

Atelectasis

Atelectasis

  Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange. It may affect part or all of a lung. It is usually unilateral. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated down to little or no volume, as distinct from pulmonary consolidation, in which they are filled […]

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