Endometriosis

Endometriosis

  Endometriosis is a condition in which cells similar to those in the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grow outside of it. Most often this is on the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in […]

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial Cancer

  Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb). It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual […]

Endocarditis

Endocarditis

  Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of […]

Encopresis

Encopresis

  Encopresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐγκόπρησις / egkóprēsis), also known as paradoxical diarrhea, is voluntary or involuntary passage of feces outside of toilet trained contexts (fecal soiling) in children who are four years or older and after an organic cause has been excluded. Children with encopresis often leak stool into their undergarments. This term […]

Encephalitis

Encephalitis

  Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Severity is variable. Symptoms may include headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting. Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing. Causes Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Other […]

Egg Allergy

Egg Allergy

  Egg allergy is an immune hypersensitivity to proteins found in chicken eggs, and possibly goose, duck, or turkey eggs. Symptoms can be either rapid or gradual in onset. The latter can take hours to days to appear. The former may include anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition which requires treatment with epinephrine. Other presentations may […]

Edward’s Syndrome

Edward’s Syndrome

  Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by a third copy of all or part of chromosome 18. Many parts of the body are affected. Babies are often born small and have heart defects. Other features include a small head, small jaw, clenched fists with overlapping fingers, and severe […]

Edema

Edema

  Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling. The amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis and the increased secretion of […]

Ectropion

Ectropion

  Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns exhibiting congenital Harlequin-type ichthyosis, but ectropion can occur due to any weakening of tissue of the lower eyelid. The condition can be repaired surgically. Ectropion is also found in dogs as a genetic […]

Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic Pregnancy

  Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus. Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Fewer than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms. The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy. Pain may also spread to the shoulder […]

Ebstein’s Anomaly

Ebstein’s Anomaly

  Ebstein’s anomaly is a congenital heart defect in which the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart. It’s classified as a critical congenital heart defect accounting for <1% of all congenital heart defects presenting in ≈1 per 200,000 live births. Signs […]

Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease

  Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea and […]

Eating Disorders

Eating Disorders

  An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person’s physical or mental health. They include binge eating disorder where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, anorexia nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight, bulimia nervosa […]

Earwax

Earwax

  Earwax, also known by the medical term cerumen, is a gray, orange, or yellowish waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and other mammals. It protects the skin of the human ear canal, assists in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection against bacteria, fungi, insects, and water. Earwax consists of […]

Eagle Syndrome

Eagle Syndrome

  Eagle syndrome (also termed stylohyoid syndrome styloid syndrome, styloid-stylohyoid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome) is a rare condition commonly characterized but not limited to – sudden, sharp nerve-like pain in the jaw bone and joint, back of the throat, and base of the tongue, triggered by swallowing, moving the jaw, or turning the neck. […]

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia Coli

  Escherichia coli (/ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/; also known as E. coli /ˌiː ˈkoʊlaɪ/) is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are […]

Dystonia

Dystonia

  Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor. Dystonia is often intensified or exacerbated by physical activity, and symptoms may progress into adjacent muscles. The disorder may be hereditary or caused by […]

Dysphagia

Dysphagia

  Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing. Although classified under “symptoms and signs” in ICD-10, the term is sometimes used as a condition in its own right. People with dysphagia are sometimes unaware of having it. It may be a sensation that suggests difficulty in the passage of solids […]

Dyslexia

Dyslexia

  Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, “sounding out” words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first […]

Dyshidrosis

Dyshidrosis

  Dyshidrosis, is a type of dermatitis, that is characterized by itchy blisters on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet. Blisters are generally one to two millimeters in size and heal over three weeks. However, they often recur. Redness is not usually present. Repeated attacks may result in fissures and skin […]

Dysarthria

Dysarthria

  Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes. In other words, it is a condition in which problems effectively occur with the muscles that help produce speech, often making it very difficult to pronounce words. It […]

Dwarfism

Dwarfism

  Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small. In humans, it is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 147 centimetres (4 ft 10 in), regardless of sex, although some individuals with dwarfism are slightly taller. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by either short limbs or a short […]

Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas (DAVF)

Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas (DAVF)

  A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. In cases where there are multiple fistulas, the related term dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVM) is used. Characteristics Signs and Symptoms The most common signs/symptoms of DAVFs are: Pulsatile tinnitus Occipital bruit […]

Dupuytren’s Contracture

Dupuytren’s Contracture

  Dupuytren’s contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position. It usually begins as small hard nodules just under the skin of the palm. It then worsens over time until the fingers can no longer be straightened. While typically not painful some aching or itching may […]

Dumping Syndrome

Dumping Syndrome

  Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, moves too quickly from the stomach to the duodenum—the first part of the small intestine—in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This condition is also called rapid gastric emptying. It is mostly associated with conditions following gastric or esophageal surgery, though it can also arise secondary to diabetes […]

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

  Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast. DCIS is classified as Stage 0. It rarely produces symptoms or a breast lump one can feel, and is usually detected through screening mammography. In DCIS, abnormal cells are found in the lining of […]

Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

  Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause. This symptom is very common and is often seen as a side effect of many types of medication. It is more common […]

Dry Macular Degeneration

Dry Macular Degeneration

  Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no symptoms. Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both […]

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry Eye Syndrome

  Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases […]

Drug Allergy

Drug Allergy

  A drug allergy is an allergy to a drug, most commonly a medication, and is a form of adverse drug reaction. Medical attention should be sought immediately if an allergic reaction is suspected. An allergic reaction will not occur on the first exposure to a substance. The first exposure allows the body to create […]

Dressler’s Syndrome (Post-Myocardial Infarction)

Dressler’s Syndrome (Post-Myocardial Infarction)

  Dressler syndrome is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart). It consists of fever, pleuritic pain, pericarditis and/or a pericardial effusion. Dressler syndrome is also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome and the term is sometimes used to […]

Dracunculiasis

Dracunculiasis

Dracunculiasis, also called Guinea-worm disease (GWD), is an infection by the Guinea worm.5 A person becomes infected when they drink water that contains water fleas infected with guinea worm larvae. Initially there are no symptoms. About one year later, the female worm forms a painful blister in the skin, usually on a lower limb. Other […]

Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome

  Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, characteristic facial features, and mild to moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ of a young adult with […]

Dizziness

Dizziness

  Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability. The term dizziness is imprecise: it can refer to vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, or a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness. One can induce dizziness by engaging in disorientating activities such as spinning. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one’s surroundings spin about […]

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis

  Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches—diverticula—which can develop in the wall of the large intestine. Symptoms typically include lower abdominal pain of a sudden onset. The onset of symptoms, however, may also occur over a few days. In North America and Europe the abdominal pain is […]

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

  Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states. There is often trouble remembering certain events, beyond what would be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. These states alternately show in a person’s behavior; presentations, however, are variable. Associated conditions […]

Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia

  Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes. The pain can primarily be on the external surface of the genitalia, or deeper in the pelvis upon deep pressure against the cervix. It can affect a small portion of the vulva or vagina or be felt all over the surface. Understanding the […]

Diphtheria

Diphtheria

  Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe. They usually start two to five days after exposure. Symptoms often come on fairly gradually, beginning with a sore throat and fever. In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat. This […]

Diogenes Syndrome

Diogenes Syndrome

  Diogenes syndrome, also known as senile squalor syndrome, is a disorder characterized by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, social withdrawal, apathy, compulsive hoarding of garbage or animals, and lack of shame. Sufferers may also display symptoms of catatonia. The condition was first recognized in 1966 and designated Diogenes syndrome by Clark et al. The name […]

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

  Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively. Symptoms vary from none to feeling tired, leg swelling, and shortness of breath. It may also result in chest pain or fainting. Complications can include heart failure, heart valve disease, or an irregular heartbeat. Causes include genetics, […]

DiGeorge Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome

  DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22. While the symptoms can be variable, they often include congenital heart problems, specific facial features, frequent infections, developmental delay, learning problems and cleft palate. Associated conditions include kidney problems, hearing loss and […]

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

  Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition characterized by abnormal calcification/bone formation (“hyperostosis”) of the soft tissues surrounding the joints of the spine, and also the peripheral or appendicular skeleton. In the spine, there is bone formation along the anterior longitudinal ligament and sometimes the posterior longitudinal ligament, which may lead to partial […]

Didaskaleinophobia (Fear Of School)

Didaskaleinophobia (Fear Of School)

  School refusal is the refusal to attend school due to emotional distress. School refusal differs from truancy in that children with school refusal feel anxiety or fear towards school, whereas truant children generally have no feelings of fear towards school, often feeling angry or bored with it instead. Children’s Hospital Boston provides a chart […]

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