Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau–Kleffner syndrome (LKS)—also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder—is a rare childhood neurological syndrome. It is named after William Landau and Frank Kleffner, who characterized it in 1957 with a diagnosis of six children. Signs and symptoms The Landau–Kleffner syndrome is characterized by the sudden or gradual development of […]

Lacunar Amnesia

Lacunar Amnesia

Lacunar amnesia is the loss of memory about one specific event. It is a type of amnesia that leaves a lacuna (a gap) in the record of memory in the cortex region of the brain. The cause of this type of amnesia is the result of brain damage to the limbic system which control our […]

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea. These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to […]

Kyphosis

Kyphosis

Kyphosis (from Greek κυφός kyphos, a hump) is an abnormally excessive convex curvature of the spine as it occurs in the thoracic and sacral regions. (Abnormal inward concave lordotic curving of the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine is called lordosis.) Kyphosis can be called roundback or Kelso’s hunchback. It can result from degenerative […]

Krabbe Disease

Krabbe Disease

Krabbe disease (KD) (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis) is a rare and often fatal lysosomal storage disease that results in progressive damage to the nervous system. KD involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. The disease is named after the Danish neurologist Knud Krabbe (1885–1965). […]

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

Korsakoff syndrome is an amnestic disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency associated with prolonged ingestion of alcohol. There is a similar condition seen in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. The syndrome and psychosis are named after Sergei Korsakoff, the Russian neuropsychiatrist who discovered it during the late 19th century. This neurological disorder is caused by a […]

Knee Pain

Knee Pain

Knee pain is pain in or around the knee. The knee joint consists of an articulation between four bones: the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. There are four compartments to the knee. These are the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, the patellofemoral compartment and the superior tibiofibular joint. The components of each of these compartments […]

Knee Bursae

Knee Bursae

The bursae of the knee are the fluid sacs and synovial pockets that surround and sometimes communicate with the joint cavity. Thin-walled and filled with synovial fluid, they represent the weak point of the joint, but also produce enlargements to the joint space. They can be grouped into either communicating and non-communicating bursae or, as […]

Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS)

Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS)

Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome formerly Klippel–Trénaunay–Weber syndrome and sometimes angioosteohypertrophy syndrome and hemangiectatic hypertrophy, is a rare congenital medical condition in which blood vessels and/or lymph vessels fail to form properly. The three main features are nevus flammeus (port-wine stain), venous and lymphatic malformations, and soft-tissue hypertrophy of the affected limb. It is similar to, though distinctly […]

Klinefelter Syndrome (KS)

Klinefelter Syndrome (KS)

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males. The primary features are infertility and small testicles. Often, symptoms may be subtle and many people do not realize they are affected. Sometimes, symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker […]

Kleptomania

Kleptomania

Kleptomania is the inability to refrain from the urge for stealing items and is usually done for reasons other than personal use or financial gain. First described in 1816, kleptomania is classified in psychiatry as an impulse control disorder. Some of the main characteristics of the disorder suggest that kleptomania could be an obsessive-compulsive spectrum […]

Cystic kidney disease

Cystic kidney disease

Cystic kidney disease refers to a wide range of hereditary, developmental, and acquired conditions. With the inclusion of neoplasms with cystic changes, over 40 classifications and subtypes have been identified. Depending on the disease classification, the presentation of disease may be from birth, or much later into adult life. Cystic disease may involve one or […]

Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially “chicken skin”) is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic condition of the skin’s hair follicles characterized by the appearance of possibly itchy, small, gooseflesh-like bumps, with varying degrees of reddening or inflammation. It most often appears on the outer sides of the upper arms, (the forearms […]

Keratoconus

Keratoconus

Keratoconus (KC) is a disorder of the eye which results in progressive thinning of the cornea. This may result in blurry vision, double vision, nearsightedness, astigmatism, and light sensitivity. Usually both eyes are affected. In more severe cases a scarring or a circle may be seen within the cornea. While the cause is unknown, it […]

Keratitis

Keratitis

Keratitis is a condition in which the eye’s cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves any of the following symptoms: pain, impaired eyesight, photophobia (light sensitivity), red eye and a ‘gritty’ sensation. Classification Acute Acute epithelial […]

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed. The most common symptoms include a fever that lasts for more than five days not affected by usual medications, large lymph nodes in the neck, a rash in the genital area, and red eyes, […]

Ischemic Colitis

Ischemic Colitis

Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply. Although uncommon in the general population, ischemic colitis occurs with greater frequency in the elderly, and is the most common form of bowel ischemia. Causes of the reduced blood flow can […]

Irritant Diaper Dermatitis

Irritant Diaper Dermatitis

Irritant diaper dermatitis is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants. Generic diaper rash or irritant diaper dermatitis (IDD) is characterized by joined patches of erythema and scaling mainly seen on the convex surfaces, with the skin folds spared. Diaper dermatitis with […]

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage. These symptoms occur over a long time, often years. It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or […]

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron. Anemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. When onset is slow, symptoms are often vague such as feeling tired, weak, short of breath, or having decreased ability to exercise. Anemia that […]

Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)

Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)

Invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for 5-10% of invasive breast cancer. Overall, the five-year survival rate of invasive lobular carcinoma was approximately 85% in 2003. Loss of E-cadherin is common in lobular carcinoma but is also seen in other breast cancers. Treatment includes surgery and adjuvant therapy.

Intussusception

Intussusception

Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section immediately ahead of it. It typically involves the small bowel and less commonly the large bowel. Symptoms include abdominal pain which may come and go, vomiting, abdominal bloating, and bloody stool. It often results in a small bowel obstruction. […]

Intracranial Hematoma

Intracranial Hematoma

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull. Subtypes are intracerebral bleeds (intraventricular bleeds and intraparenchymal bleeds), subarachnoid bleeds, epidural bleeds, and subdural bleeds. Intracerebral bleeding affects 2.5 per 10,000 people each year. Signs and symptoms Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency because the buildup of blood within the […]

Intertrigo

Intertrigo

Intertrigo refers to a type of inflammatory rash (dermatitis) of the superficial skin that occurs within a person’s body folds. These areas are more susceptible to irritation and subsequent infection due to factors that promote skin breakdown such as moisture, friction, and exposure to bodily secretions such as sweat, urine or feces. Areas of the […]

Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs). It concerns alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, and perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. It may occur when an injury to the lungs triggers an […]

Interstitial Cystitis

Interstitial Cystitis

Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder. Symptoms include feeling the need to urinate right away, needing to urinate often, and pain with sex. IC/BPS is associated with depression and lower quality of life. Many of those affected also have irritable bowel […]

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Intermittent explosive disorder (sometimes abbreviated as IED) is a behavioral disorder characterized by explosive outbursts of anger and violence, often to the point of rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand (e.g., impulsive screaming triggered by relatively inconsequential events). Impulsive aggression is not premeditated, and is defined by a disproportionate reaction to any […]

Insomnia

Insomnia

Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood. It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well […]

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal Hernia

An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. Symptoms are present in about 66% of affected people. This may include pain or discomfort especially with coughing, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the day and improves when lying down. A bulging area may occur that becomes larger […]

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