Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters or may just cause a sore throat. Genital herpes, often […]

Hepatitis

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Some people have no symptoms whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Hepatitis may be temporary (acute) or long term (chronic) depending on whether it lasts for less than or more than six months. […]

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed; the unqualified term “hemorrhoid” is often used to refer to the disease. The signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal […]

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis

Iron overload (also known as haemochromatosis or hemochromatosis) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause. The most important causes are hereditary haemochromatosis (HHC), a genetic disorder, and transfusional iron overload, which can result from repeated blood transfusions. Signs and symptoms Organs most commonly affected by haemochromatosis are the liver, heart, and endocrine […]

Hemiplegia

Hemiplegia

Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means “half”). Hemiplegia is, in its most severe form, complete paralysis of half of the body. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia can be caused by different medical conditions, including congenital causes, trauma, tumors, or stroke. Signs and symptoms Depending on the type of […]

Hematuria (Blood in Urine)

Hematuria (Blood in Urine)

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Visible hematuria, also known as gross hematuria (also frank hematuria or macroscopic hematuria), causes visible red or brown discoloration of the urine. Microscopic hematuria is invisible to the naked eye and is often found by urinalysis or urine dipstick; it is said to be […]

HELLP Syndrome

HELLP Syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count. It usually begins during the last three months of pregnancy or shortly after childbirth. Symptoms may include feeling tired, retaining fluid, headache, nausea, upper right abdominal pain, blurry vision, nosebleeds, and seizures. Complications may include disseminated intravascular […]

Helicobacter Pylori Infection

Helicobacter Pylori Infection

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach. It was identified in 1982 by Australian scientists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, who found that it was present in a person with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers, conditions not previously believed to have a microbial cause. It […]

Heat Stroke

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and confusion. Other symptoms include red, dry or damp skin, headache, and dizziness. Onset can be sudden or gradual. Complications may include seizures, rhabdomyolysis, or kidney failure. Heat stroke […]

Heartburn

Heartburn

Heartburn, also known as pyrosis, cardialgia or acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen. The discomfort often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw. Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric reflux) into the esophagus and […]

Heart Failure

Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF), also known as chronic heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body’s needs. Signs and symptoms of heart failure commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling. The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying […]

Heart Arrhythmias

Heart Arrhythmias

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow – below […]

Headache

Headache

Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines (sharp, or throbbing pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment. There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches. Headaches can occur as a result of […]

Head and Neck Cancers

Head and Neck Cancers

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands. Symptoms for head and neck cancer may include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, trouble swallowing, or a change in the voice. There may […]

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto’s disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed. Early on there may be no symptoms. Over time the thyroid may enlarge forming a painless goiter. Some people eventually develop hypothyroidism with its accompanying weight gain, feeling tired, constipation, depression, and […]

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. […]

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is one of two potentially fatal syndromes of zoonotic origin caused by species of hantavirus. These include Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV), New York virus (NYV), Monongahela virus (MGLV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and certain other members of Hantavirus genera that are native to the United States and Canada. Specific rodents […]

Hangover

Hangover

A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits. Hangovers can last for several hours or for more than 24 hours. Typical symptoms of a hangover may include headache, drowsiness, concentration problems, dry mouth, dizziness, fatigue, gastrointestinal distress (e.g., vomiting), […]

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by a group of viruses. It typically begins with a fever and feeling generally unwell. This is followed a day or two later by flat discolored spots or bumps that may blister, on the hands, feet and mouth and occasionally buttocks and groin. Signs […]

Hammertoe and Mallet Toe

Hammertoe and Mallet Toe

A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the muscles and ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint. Claw toe is another similar condition, with dorsiflexion of […]

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a disorder in which a person has flashbacks of visual hallucinations or distortions experienced during a previous hallucinogenic drug experience, sometimes with the same feelings experienced before, which cause distress or impairment in work or everyday life. The flashbacks may be continuous or just occasional. HPPD is a DSM-5 […]

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes. It is usually classified as a sub-type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Hairy cell leukemia makes up approximately 2% of all leukemias, with fewer than 2,000 new cases diagnosed annually in North America and Western Europe combined. Hairy cell […]

Hair Loss

Hair Loss

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body. Typically at least the head is involved. The severity of hair loss can vary from a small area to the entire body. Typically inflammation or scarring is not present. Hair loss in some people […]

Gynophobia (Fear Of Women)

Gynophobia (Fear Of Women)

Gynophobia or gynephobia is an abnormal fear of women, a type of specific social phobia. In the past, the Latin term horror feminae was used. Gynophobia should not be confused with misogyny, the hatred, contempt for and prejudice against women, although some may use the terms interchangeably, in reference to the social, rather than pathological […]

Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs. Psychological distress or dysphoria may occur. The development of gynecomastia is usually associated with benign pubertal changes. However, 75% of pubertal gynecomastia cases resolve within two years of onset without treatment. In rare cases, gynecomastia has […]

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system. The initial symptoms are typically changes in sensation or pain along with muscle weakness, beginning in the feet and hands. This often spreads to the arms and upper body, with both sides being involved. The symptoms develop […]

Greenstick Fracture

Greenstick Fracture

A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green (i.e., fresh) wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent. It was discovered by British-American […]

Grave’s Disease

Grave’s Disease

Graves’ disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. It frequently results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It also often results in an enlarged thyroid. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, poor tolerance of heat, […]

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s Granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis. It is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects small- and medium-size vessels in many organs but most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract and the kidneys. Therefore, the signs and […]

Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare is a fairly rare, chronic skin condition which presents as reddish bumps on the skin arranged in a circle or ring. It can initially occur at any age and is four times more common in females. Signs and Symptoms Aside from the visible rash, granuloma annulare is usually asymptomatic. Sometimes the rash may […]

Granulocytopenia (agranulocytosis)

Granulocytopenia (agranulocytosis)

Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils, and thus causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. It is a severe lack of one major class of infection-fighting white blood cells. People with this condition are at […]

Grandiose delusions (GD), delusions of grandeur, expansive delusions are a subtype of delusion that occur in patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including two-thirds of patients in manic state of bipolar disorder, half of those with schizophrenia, patients with the grandiose subtype of delusional disorder, and a substantial portion of those with […]

Gout

Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than twelve hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney […]

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Many of those infected have no symptoms. Men may have burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in […]

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s Elbow

Golfer’s elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is tendinosis of the medial epicondyle on the inside of the elbow. It is in some ways similar to tennis elbow, which affects the outside at the lateral epicondyle. The anterior forearm contains several muscles that are involved with flexing the digits of the hand, and flexing and pronating the […]

Goiter

Goiter

A goitre, or goiter, is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. A goitre can be associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly. Worldwide, over 90% of goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency. The term is from the Latin gutturia, meaning throat. Most goitres are of a benign […]

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys). Many of the diseases are characterised by inflammation either of the glomeruli or of the small blood vessels in the kidneys, hence the name, but not all diseases necessarily have an inflammatory component. As it is not strictly a […]

Glioma

Glioma

A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine. Gliomas comprise about 30 percent of all brain tumors and central nervous system tumors, and 80 percent of all malignant brain tumors. Classification Gliomas are classified by cell type, by grade, and by location. By type […]

Glaucoma

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Peripheral vision may begin to decrease followed by central […]

Gingivitis

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) that is attached to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis. Most forms of gingivitis are plaque-induced. While some cases of gingivitis […]

Gilbert’s Syndrome

Gilbert’s Syndrome

Gilbert’s syndrome (GS) is a mild liver disorder in which the liver does not properly process bilirubin. Many people never have symptoms. Occasionally a slight yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes may occur. Other possible symptoms include feeling tired, weakness, and abdominal pain. Gilbert’s syndrome is due to a mutation in […]

Gigantism

Gigantism

Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας, gígas, “giant”, plural γίγαντες, gígantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood resulting in people 7 to 9 ft (2.1 to 2.7 m) in height. It is a rare […]

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