Chilblains

Chilblains

Chilblains — also known as pernio, chill burns and perniosis — is a medical condition that occurs when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity, causing tissue damage. It is often confused with frostbite and trench foot. Damage to capillary beds in the skin causes redness, itching, inflammation, and sometimes blisters. Chilblains can […]

Chickenpox

Chickenpox

Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over. It usually starts on the chest, back, and face then spreads to the rest of the body. Other […]

Chiari Malformation

Chiari Malformation

Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum. They consist of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull), sometimes causing non-communicating hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. The cerebrospinal fluid outflow is caused by phase difference in […]

Chest Pain

Chest Pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest. Chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious disorders and is, in general, considered a medical emergency. Chest pain can be differentiated into heart-related and non heart related chest pain. Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris. Some causes of noncardiac chest […]

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or […]

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body. Currently incurable, this disease is the most commonly inherited neurological disorder, and affects about one in […]

Chagas Disease

Chagas Disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread mostly by insects known as Triatominae, or “kissing bugs”. The symptoms change over the course of the infection. In the early stage, symptoms are typically either not present or mild, and may include fever, […]

Cervicitis

Cervicitis

Cervices is inflammation of the uterine cervix. Cervicitis in women has many features in common with urethritis in men and many cases are caused by sexually transmitted infections. Death may occur. Non-infectious causes of cervicitis can include intrauterine devices, contraceptive diaphragms, and allergic reactions to spermicides or latex condoms. The condition is often confused with […]

Cervical Spondylosis

Cervical Spondylosis

Spondylosis is a broad term meaning degeneration of the spinal column from any cause. In the more narrow sense it refers to spinal osteoarthritis, the age-related wear and tear of the spinal column, which is the most common cause of spondylosis. The degenerative process in osteoarthritis chiefly affects the vertebral bodies, the neural foramina and […]

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix that could potentially lead to cervical cancer. More specifically, CIN refers to the potentially premalignant transformation of cells of the cervix. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia most commonly occurs at the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) of the […]

Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. Later symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding […]

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing and speaking. Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or […]

Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (Ondine’s Curse)

Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (Ondine’s Curse)

Central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS) is a respiratory disorder that results in respiratory arrest during sleep. CHS can either be congenital (CCHS) or acquired (ACHS) later in life. It is fatal if untreated. It is also known as Ondine’s curse. ACHS can develop as a result of severe injury or trauma to the brain or brainstem. […]

Cellulite

Cellulite

Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen. Cellulite occurs in most postpubescent females. A review […]

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine. Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally. This often begins between six months and two years of age. Non-classic symptoms are more common, […]

Cavities (teeth)

Cavities (teeth)

A cavity is a hollow in an object. It may refer to: Cavity or dental caries, a damage to the structure of a tooth Body cavity, a fluid filled space in many animals where organs typically develop Cavity (heat source), the regions formed between adjacent fins to extract heat from a variety of heat generating […]

Cavernous Hemangioma

Cavernous Hemangioma

Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, cavernoma, or cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) (when referring to presence in the brain) is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor. Because of this malformation, blood flow through the cavities, or caverns, is slow. Additionally, the cells […]

Catatonia

Catatonia

Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor. It was first described in 1874 by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum, in German: Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein (Catatonia or Tension Insanity). Though catatonia has historically been related to schizophrenia (catatonic schizophrenia), it is now known that catatonic symptoms are nonspecific and may […]

Cataracts

Cataracts

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, […]

Castleman Disease

Castleman Disease

Castleman disease is a group of uncommon lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by lymph node enlargement, characteristic features on microscopic analysis of enlarged lymph node tissue, and a range of symptoms and clinical findings. Castleman disease includes at least 3 distinct disorders—unicentric Castleman disease (UCD), human herpesvirus 8 associated multicentric Castleman disease (HHV-8-associated MCD), and idiopathic multicentric […]

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are pain, numbness, and tingling, in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and the thumb side of the ring fingers. Symptoms typically start gradually and during the […]

Carotid Artery Stenosis

Carotid Artery Stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of any part of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis. Signs and symptoms The common carotid artery is the large artery whose pulse can be felt on both sides of the neck under the jaw. On the right side it starts from the brachiocephalic artery (a […]

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, […]

Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)

Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)

Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged. It is more commonly referred to as an enlarged heart. The causes of cardiomegaly may vary. Many times this condition results from high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease. An enlarged heart may not pump blood effectively, resulting in congestive heart failure. Cardiomegaly […]

Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency resulting from inadequate blood flow due to the dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart. There are different types of shock–cardiogenic, hypovolemia, septic, to mention a few. However, none of these are exclusive. Patients can have combined types of shock as well. Shock by definition is inadequate blood circulation […]

Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP)

Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP)

Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP, “occult cancer”) is a cancer that is determined to be at the metastatic stage at the time of diagnosis, but a primary tumor cannot be identified. A diagnosis of CUP requires a clinical picture consistent with metastatic disease and one or more biopsy results inconsistent with a primary tumor. […]

Carcinoid

Carcinoid

Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system. In some cases, metastasis may occur. Carcinoid tumors of the midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, and cecum) are associated with carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid tumors are the most common malignant tumor of the appendix, but they are most […]

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. The syndrome includes flushing and diarrhea, and less frequently, heart failure, emesis and bronchoconstriction. It is caused by endogenous secretion of mainly serotonin and kallikrein. Signs and Symptoms The carcinoid syndrome occurs in approximately 5% of carcinoid tumors […]

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO). Symptoms are often described as “flu-like” and commonly include headache, dizziness, weakness, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. Large exposures can result in loss of consciousness, arrhythmias, seizures, or death. The classically described “cherry red skin” rarely occurs. Long term complications may include […]

Cannabis Use Disorder

Cannabis Use Disorder

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) (Also known as cannabis or marijuana addiction) is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and ICD-10 published by World Health Organization as the continued use of cannabis despite clinically significant impairment, ranging from mild to severe. Cannabis is one of the most […]

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