Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, […]

Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)

Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)

Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged. It is more commonly referred to as an enlarged heart. The causes of cardiomegaly may vary. Many times this condition results from high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease. An enlarged heart may not pump blood effectively, resulting in congestive heart failure. Cardiomegaly […]

Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency resulting from inadequate blood flow due to the dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart. There are different types of shock–cardiogenic, hypovolemia, septic, to mention a few. However, none of these are exclusive. Patients can have combined types of shock as well. Shock by definition is inadequate blood circulation […]

Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP)

Cancer of Unknown Primary origin (CUP)

Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP, “occult cancer”) is a cancer that is determined to be at the metastatic stage at the time of diagnosis, but a primary tumor cannot be identified. A diagnosis of CUP requires a clinical picture consistent with metastatic disease and one or more biopsy results inconsistent with a primary tumor. […]

Carcinoid

Carcinoid

Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system. In some cases, metastasis may occur. Carcinoid tumors of the midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, and cecum) are associated with carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid tumors are the most common malignant tumor of the appendix, but they are most […]

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. The syndrome includes flushing and diarrhea, and less frequently, heart failure, emesis and bronchoconstriction. It is caused by endogenous secretion of mainly serotonin and kallikrein. Signs and Symptoms The carcinoid syndrome occurs in approximately 5% of carcinoid tumors […]

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