Apert Syndrome

Apert Syndrome

  Apert syndrome is a form of acrocephalosyndactyly, a congenital disorder characterized by malformations of the skull, face, hands and feet. It is classified as a branchial arch syndrome, affecting the first branchial (or pharyngeal) arch, the precursor of the maxilla and mandible. Disturbances in the development of the branchial arches in fetal development create […]

Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease

  Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging, but may also be […]

Aortic Dissection

Aortic Dissection

  Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart. In most cases this is associated with a sudden onset of severe chest or back pain, often described as “tearing” in character. Also, vomiting, sweating, […]

Aortic Aneurysm

Aortic Aneurysm

  An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size. They usually cause no symptoms except when ruptured. Occasionally, there may be abdominal, back, or leg pain. They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta. Aortic aneurysms […]

Anxiety

Anxiety

  Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is […]

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. A low moral sense or conscience is often apparent, as well as a history of crime, legal problems, or impulsive and aggressive behavior. Antisocial personality disorder is defined in […]

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

  Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia. The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) […]

Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

  Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. Microbiota alteration changes carbohydrate metabolism with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and an osmotic diarrhea as a result. Another consequence of antibiotic therapy leading to diarrhea is overgrowth of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Clostridium difficile. It is defined […]

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